- Milk: rice milk, soy milk, almond milk, coconut milk (carton, not can) — substitute equal amount
- Buttermilk: any of the above allowed milk plus vinegar (1 cup milk + 1 Tbsp white vinegar, let stand for 5 minutes)
- Butter (spread only): Best Life Buttery Spread (does not work in baking or frying)
- Butter: Earth’s Balance non-dairy margarine (contains soy) or Earth Balance dairy and soy0free margarine (contains corn), coconut oil, olive oil (non-baking), grapeseed oil or canola oil (in baking, use about 3/4 cup oil per 1 cup butter)
- Cream Cheese: Tofutti Cream Cheese (contains soy)
- Yogurt: any soy-based yogurts, coconut or almond milk yogurt
- Ice Cream: Rice Dream ice cream pints or sandwiches, Trader Joe’s sorbet
- EnerG egg replacer: This works the best of all the egg substitutions I have tried. The box is pricey up front, but it lasts a long time.
- Flax Seed: For 1 egg, mix 1 Tbsp ground flax seed with 3 Tbsp warm water until combined and frothy.
- Applesauce: 1/4 cup applesauce per 1 egg (This isn’t the best substitute for helping baked goods to rise.)
Peanut (if no tree nut allergy)
- Almonds, Cashews, Sunflower Seed: All can be used in whole form or made/purchased as butter — equal substitution.
- You can substitute various tree nuts if you are only allergic to one specific tree nut, but you must be very careful of cross-contamination.
- Oat Flour*: substitute approximately 1 1/4 cup oat flour (I grind old-fashioned oats in coffee grinder) for 1 cup all-purpose flour
- Rice Flour (white or brown): equal substitution
- As thickener (in soups/sauces): use oat flour, arrowroot flour, or tapioca starch as equal substitute
- For bread crumbs: oatmeal
- Pasta: Rice Noodles (I prefer those found in the Asian section, Asian grocer or Trader Joe’s. They have a better texture, taste and price than the advertised gluten-free pasta, in my opinion.)
- Flour Blend (gluten-free) to use for pie crust, pancake mix, etc.: Combine 1 1/4 cup bean flour, chickpea flour or soy flour + 1 cup arrowroot starch, cornstarch or potato starch + 1 cup tapioca starch/flour + 1 cup white of brown rice flour
- Buckwheat flour
- *oats that are not certified to be gluten-free may contain traces of wheat
- Vegetable (soybean) Oil: canola oil, grapeseed oil
- Shortening: coconut oil, non-soy shortening (have not used this), butter, non-dairy butter, oil (use about 3/4 cup oil per 1 cup shortening)
- Earth Balance Non-dairy/soy butter: I have not used this because it contains corn.
- Soy Sauce: There is a gluten-free soy sauce on the market, but I do not believe I have seen a soy-free soy sauce. This is a very hard substitution to make, in my opinion. As a condiment, I have not found a good substitute. As an ingredient, I have used the following recipe: 1 1/2 cup beef broth (I have only found organic beef broth to contain no soy or corn), 4 tsp balsamic vinegar, 2 tsp molasses, 1/4 tsp ground ginger, pinch pepper and garlic powder. Boil about 15 minutes until reduced (or if you’re in a big hurry and don’t feel like this step, just throw it all in the recipe).
Corn (this isn’t a top allergen, but exists in my home):
- Corn Starch: arrowroot flour works best (have also used tapioca and rice starch)
- Corn Syrup: maple syrup